Dehydration in the elderly. Causes and Prevention

Dehydration and Exercise in the elderly

Dehydration in the elderly

The elderly are more susceptible to dehydration. The main mechanisms responsible for dysregulation water that I will highlight:

* Anatomical and functional changes in the riñónque lead to: reduction of glomerular filtration, reduced urinary concentration, reduced ability to excrete water load, less efficiency in the ability to conserve sodium. From the 50s, the weight of the kidneys decreases from 20 to 30%, the number of intact glomeruli decreases and increases the number of clusters sclerotized. All this causes problems with concentration and electrolyte balance. By not regulating blood pressure while the water level and mineral kidney, alters perception of thirst.

* Nutrient-drug interactions. Many drugs involve decreased absorption of minerals, necessary for the electrochemical equilibrium, as well as a decrease in both salivary gland secretion and tear. In the case of salivary involves failing to prepare the digestive tract to digest food and chemically prepare food from the mouth.

* Decreased homeostatic systems. The very lack of hydration involves a reduction in operating capacity of homeostatic and allostatic systems. And this in turn implies that they lose responsiveness and sensation, including the loss of the ability of thirst. Changes in the regulatory systems and the formation of angiotensin (not in its effect in itself) will give an erroneous interpretation of the control centers of thirst in the hypothalamus (nucleus arquatus) existing blood pressure, to result in a decreased sensation of thirst and increased intercellular fluid accumulation. Another effect is immediately evident is the inability for thermal, which the elderly are more vulnerable to inclement weather.

* Taking diuretics and laxatives, especially osmotic and irritants. Many drugs used to prevent high blood pressure and heart problems are diuretics. This implies an increased loss of fluids and minerals (mainly sodium, potassium and magnesium, although not the only ones), which should be replenished adequately, and usually both water intake of food is insufficient in comparison with the loss . The same is true with laxatives, which also increase the loss of water and minerals, many of them involving malabsorption of vitamins. Other drugs account for decrease in other essential vitamins such as B group, minerals like Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Selenium, Copper, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, protein depletion, etc. Everything will worsen water-mineral balance and blood pressure.

How can people avoid dehydration problems

* Not contribute to excessive wear and quicker than implied by the kidneys, for example, giving no work overload. This is a preventive always be advised to do in life to reach optimal state old age, but never too late if you want to start. One proposal is to improve the performance of the liver, which is easier to treat, not to accumulate toxic metabolites in blood and extra burden then have to go to the kidneys. This included an improvement in the rate of food intake, increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables in addition to the macronutrients that has provide antioxidants, vitamins and minerals. It is also recommended reducing consumption of saturated fat and trans unsaturated fats after, with a proper ratio of omega 9, 6 and 3 primarily.

* Exercise to help: to improve irrigation, the muscle fiber mitochondria and consequently their best to help eliminate free radicals that form in the metabolism, generating thirst, improve the intake of adequate food, more awake to keep the mind and ability to make sound decisions.

* Eliminate alcohol consumption, snuff, drugs, etc.. which decrease the metabolic capacity of cleansing the body, the liver function deficit, increase cardiovascular risks ....

* Improving water and mineral intake, if necessary including a multimineral supplement. It is not meaningless to drink large quantities, because we could go into a renal failure rather than a benefit, but to recover the physiological sensation of thirst and drinking habits according to each day, exercise done, season, etc.

Related Topics
Aging Program
Theories of aging: free radicals

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