Analysis of general blood

Blood tests or clinical. It is an indispensable means to distinguish blood diseases themselves (anemia, leukemia, etc.), and hemorrhagic diseases (hemophilia, etc.). It also determines the rate of glucose, uric acid, functionality of various organs for the content of nitrogen, cholesterol, bilirubin, enzymes, alkaline or acid reaction. Also shows the functionality of the bone marrow.

Below are some facts to consider.

Erythrocytes
N ° of RBCs or erythrocytes:
Male: 4,5 - 6,2 million / mm3
Male: 4,2 - 5,4 million / mm3

Hematocrit:
Men: 43-49%
Women: 35-45%

Hemoglobin (Hb 15 g in 100 d.c.)

Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) 80-100 fl. Decreased microcytosis (iron deficiency, thalassemia). Increased macrocytosis (lack of folic acid, B12, chronic liver disease and reticulocytosis.

Index distribution of erythrocytes (HDI) (SD and RDW-CV)> 15% anisocytosis.

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) 27 and 31 pg. Mean hemoglobin content of erythrocytes. Decreased = hypochromia (microcytosis), relative increase = hyperchromia (macrocytosis).

Corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) Amount of hemoglobin (in g) in 1 dl of RBC. Between 32 and 36 g / dl. If you are over spoken of absolute hyperchromia.

The decrease in the MCHC is given in congenital stomatocytosis hidrocitosis or dilution of erythrocyte hemoglobin content. The increase occurs in hereditary spherocytosis (by decreasing the ratio between the surface and the red cell volume) and aritrocitaria or xerocitosis dehydration (excessive water loss from the erythrocyte).

ALTERATIONS OF ERYTHROCYTE
Size

Anisocytosis: Erythrocytes of different sizes. Mainly transfused patients.

Microcytosis: longitudinal diameter <a 7m and a volume less than 80m3.
Occur in thalassemia, sickle Sideroachrestic and especially in iron deficiency anemia.

Macrocytosis. Longitudinal diameter> 8 meters and a volume exceeding 100 m3.
It occurs in alcoholism and chronic liver disease.

Megalocitosis. Longitudinal diameter> 11 m.
It occurs in megaloblastic anemia (vitamin B9 deficiency or vitamin B12.)


The way

Acontacitosis. Erythrocytes or red blood cells and espíuclas of longitus irregular position (acanthocytes).
It occurs in abetalipoproteinemia and in liver cirrhosis.

Dianocitosis. They have a lip color that encloses a pale annular zone whose center is also colored. (target cells).

It occurs in thalassemia or iron deficiency anemia and chronic liver disease by increasing cholesterol and phospholipids in the erythrocyte membrane.

Depranocitosis. Sickle-shaped erythrocytes. It occurs in sickle cell anemia.

Elliptocytosis. Erythrocytes in an elliptic or oval. It occurs in iron deficiency anemia, megaloblastic (B6 and B12), in myelofibrosis, but is typical of hereditary elipticitosis.

Echinocytosis. Erythrocytes with short spicules, regularly distributed over its entire surface (echinocytes crenate or erythrocytes).
It occurs in uremia ATP deficit in glucosis, when they are poor in K + from kidney failure, and neonatal liver disease.

Spherocytosis. Erythrocytes with spherical shape are also usually small.
It occurs in hidrocitosis in autoimmune hemolytic anemia and especially in hereditary spherocytosis.

Esquistocitosis consists in the existence of fragmented erythrocytes.
It occurs in microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, mechanical hemolysis in the presence of a prosthetic valve in the heart and severe burns.

Stomatocytosis. Erythrocytes with a central invagination mouths as increased permeability of the erythrocyte membrane to sodium. Discs are unicóncavos.
It occurs in alcoholism and chronic liver disease.

Excentrocitosis. Erythrocytes whose Hb is concentrated in one pole (excentrocitos). Deficit occurs in the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in hemolytic anemia induced by oxidizing agents (drugs, chemicals, etc.).

Keratocitosis. Erythrocytes with two spikes on their surface (keratocitos). It occurs in microangiopathic hemolytic anemia in hemolysis by cardiac prostheses and the cavernous hemangjoma.

Poikilocytosis Diacriocitosis. Teardrop erythrocytes or racket. It occurs in the thalassemias, in disorders of erythropoiesis in iron-deficiency anemia, megaloblastic and fundal or marrow fibrosis in myelofibrosis.

Color
Normal erythrocytes show a more intense staining in the periphery than in the center.

Anisocromía. Lack of uniformity in the color between red cells and some others. The coexistence of two populations of red cells, with different colors, comes at the beginning of the treatment of deficiency anemias and in patients with hypochromic anemia who are transfused.

Hipocromía. Result of decreased hemoglobin content. Erythrocytes pale and with greater clarity central (anulocitos). It occurs in iron deficiency anemia.

Hyperchromia. Sign of cellular immaturity. Often seen in regenerative anemia (reticulocytosis) or in certain anemias aregenerative accompanied by premature exit from the peripheral blood reticulocytes. Erythrocytes are characterized by very large or with a high content of RNA.


Intraerythrocytic inclusions
Heinz bodies. Hb are precipitated. Small grains that lie at the periphery of erythrocytes. They occur in congenital diseases that involve an instability of Hb, which causes it to denature and precipitate in the presence of certain drugs (sulfonamides).

LEUKOCYTES
Leukocytes 6000-9000/mm3 Increase: acute, febrile processes (pneumonia, appendicitis, etc.). Anemias in general. A large and permanent increase may signal leukemia.

Leukocyte Formula:
Segmented or neutrophils 55-65% (60-70).
Lymphocytes 25-35% (30-35).
Monocytes 4-8% (3-5).
Eosinophils 0.5-1% (1-3).
Basophils 0.5-1% (0,01-1).
Staves 3-5%.

Alterations in the number of leukocytes
Neutropenia: Agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, infection (typhoid fever, brucellosis, viral hepatitis, etc.).

Neutrophilia: Pregnancy, vigorous exercise, anxiety, severe Hemorrogias. Extensive tissue destruction. Some metabolic diseases (drops per axis.). Many bacterial infections (sepsis p axis.). Mycoses. Some therapies (corticosteroids, or lithium).

Eosinopenia: Phase control of most infections (pneumonia, typhoid fever, miliary Tubercolosis, influenza, typhus, etc.).. Stress. Acute myocardial infarction. Use of drugs (corticosteroids, epinephrine, etc).

Eosinophilia: idiopathic eosinophilia. Some acute infections (scarlet fever, measles, etc.) and chronic (tuberculous meningitis, leprosy, etc.).. Recovery phase of most infections. Parasitic infections, particularly helminths. Some phenomena of hypersensitivity. Hematological malignancies (eosinophilic chronic myeloid leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, etc.).. Collagen. Endocrinopathies (Addison's disease, panhypopituitarism, etc.).

Basopenia: Some infections (brucellosis and exanthem subitum). Some endocrine (hyperthyroidism and Cushing's syndrome). Prolonged treatment of heparin.

Basophilia: Some viral infections (chickenpox, smallpox). Some endocrinopathies (hypothyroidism, diabetes). Some blood disorders (polycythemia vera and chronic myelogenous leukemia). Asthma. After exposure to ionizing radiation.

Monocytopenia: hairy cell leukemia (hairy). Cushing's syndrome. Treatment with steroids.

Monocytosis: granulomatous infections (tuberculosis, brucellosis, etc). Some parasitic infections (malaria, triponosomiasis, leishmaniasis, etc.). Recovery phase of many acute infections. Collagen. Blood Diseases (monocytic leukemia, histiocytosis X, Hodgkin's disease, etc.).. Intestinal neoplasms.

Lymphopenia: Some congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies (eg AIDS). Lymphomas. Immunosuppressive therapy (per axle. With nitrogen mustard).

Lymphocytosis: Early Childhood. Recovery phase of bacterial infections (whooping cough and syphilis). Viral infections (infectious mononucleosis, acute infectious lymphocytosis, mumps, chickenpox, measles, rubella, hepatitis, etc.).. Many endocrinopathies (for ex. Basedow's disease). Acute and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Plasmacytosis: Some infections (rubella, infectious mononucleosis, etc.).. serum sickness. Chronic lead poisoning (lead poisoning). Multiple myeloma (plasmocytoma). Plasma cell leukemia.

Lymphocyte B are responsible for humoral immunity (antibody production). Leukemia-related increase

Lymphocyte T: are responsible for cellular immunity. Leukemia-related increase.


THROMBOCYTES OR PLATELETS: 200.000-350.000/mm3
Prothrombin time 14.0 - 18.5 sec


IRON

Serum iron 65 - 175ug Decreased in iron deficiency anemia. Augmented by sideroblastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, and acute or chronic liver disease.

Transferrin 200 to 400 TIBC (transferrin capacity being saturated with iron) decreased in iron overload, chronic conditions, loss of protein, and therefore of transferrin as nephrotic syndrome. Augmented by iron deficiency, as iron deficiency anemia, or acute liver disease.

Ferritin 20-120 (amount of ferritin in serum. Level of reserves in the body).
Percentage saturation transferrrina. Between 25% and 45%.

OTHER FACTS TO CONSIDER

Blood glucose (0.70 to 1.10 gms. / L) expresses the concentration of glucose in the blood.

Azotemia: nitrogen concentration in the blood (urea). Typically ranges between 0.25 and 0.35 gms. per liter. This is important for the exploration of renal function.

Uricemia: the concentration of uric acid. It lies between 20 and 40 mgs. / L
It is typical of gout. Renal impairment.

Cholesterolemia: dosage of cholesterol in the blood.
Desirable <200 mg / dl
Borderline high 200-239
High> 240
HDL <35
Desirable LDL <130
Risk limits 130-159
High risk> 160

Triglycerides: <160 mg / dl

Phospholipids 150-250 mg / dl

Bilirubin: is the pigment or dye in the bile. Product replacement terminal hemoglobin in red blood cells. Normally varies between 0.15 and 0.30 mgs./100 cc. Bilirubin may be associated with anemia "hemolytic (destruction of red blood cells) or with liver disease and bile duct

Proteinemia. Number of blood proteins (albumin and globulin). There is usually 60 to 70 gm / l. A decline is typical in cases of malnutrition and anemia, nephrosis, cirrhosis, etc.. The increase of globulin may be found in malignant tumors, infectious-diseases, nephrosis, rheumatoid arthritis.


ENZYMES: among the most important are:

Transaminase

G.O.T. (up to 42 H. 35 M. 47 N)

G.P.T. (up to 45 H. 36 M. 36 N)

G.G.T (11-50 H. 7-32 M.)

(increase in viral hepatitis and other liver diseases in myocardial miocarido, hemorrhagic pancreatitis),

Alkaline phosphatase (100-275) (related to liver disease), acid (usually increases in bone metastasis of prostate cancer),

Aldolase (increases in progressive muscular dystrophy),

Amylase (up 220) and lipase (increase in pancreatitis).


Inorganic elements:

calcium, phosphorus, iron, chlorine, iodine, bromine, fluorine, magnesium, sodium, potassium and sulfur. For example, reduced iron is associated with secondary anemia, as is increased in pernicious anemia and hemolytic anemia.

Calcium: 8,2-11,6 mg/100 ml. (ionic 4,2-5,2). Reduced in rickets, osteomalacia, at least insofar as nephrosis, diarrhea. Also thyroid tumors or hyperplasia.

Sodium: 310-330 mg/100 ml. Reduced in states of acidosis. Increases in nephritis.

Potassium: 14-20 mg/100 ml. Dehydration and reduced adrenocortical hyperfunction. Increase in pneumonia and acute, in Addison's disease and in states of severe renal failure and uremia.

Chlorine: 365-381 mg/100 ml.

Copper: 0,11-0,12 "

Phosphorus: 3-4.5 mg / cc. (children 4-6). Reduced in rickets. Augmented by nephritis and kidney failure, parathyroid, repair of bone fractures.

Alkaline reserve: 53-77 vol%

Ph blood: acid-alkaline ratio in the blood. This ranges from 7.20 to 7.38. Lowest associated with acidosis, alkalosis higher.

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) 1st hour 3-10 mm. 2nd h. 7-22 mm. 24 h. 50-90 mm. Related rheumatic diseases, infectious diseases, pulmonary tuberculosis, liver disease, cardiac infarction, malignancy, pregnancy, etc.. when coming out of the normal range.


Related topics:

Classification of anemias
Anemia: Symptoms
Anemia. Treatments and remedies

*Automatic Translation