Calcium: Properties and functions. Symptoms of excess or deficit

Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. In an adult from 1,000 to 1,500 g. is calcium, constituting 1.6% of total body weight.
Besides being present in solid tissues, calcium is found in blood plasma, interstitial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid and very little inside the cells.

Within tissue calcium is combined with phosphorus in the form of tricalcium phosphate thus giving strength to bones, and combined with fluoride in the form of calcium fluoride and fibrous connective tissues: periosteum, tooth enamel, tendondes, epidermis , lens, etc..

Properties of calcium
* Its primary role is in building bones together with phosphorus and magnesium.
* Calcium is involved in blood clotting and clotting factors.
* Calcium is also involved in neuromuscular excitability. Nerve impulse transmitter in the sensory and motor fibers
* Calcium helps the heart rate, strengthening myocardial contraction
* Permeability of the cell membrane as activator of numerous enzyme systems.
* Calcium is the body healing.

All tissues need calcium if it is to be carried out any scarring. The main service that provides calcium is to build bones and tissues of the heart.

Daily Calcium Needs
Calcium requirements are estimated between 0.5 g and 1.5 g daily, depending on sex, age, status, etc.. As currently recommended regimen is considered ideal intake of 800 mg. for the adult.

Elimination of calcium
The daily elimination of calcium varies between 0.32 g and 0.73 g in all ages and no dietary restriction. Between 0.12 g and 0.35 g per day are excreted in the urine as calcium phosphate; the remainder is eliminated equally by feces. Perspiration. Lactation represents a significant loss of calcium. Lactating women should take, according to some authors, between 2 and 3 grams of calcium per day.

Cause of calcium absorption and elimination
The absorption and calcium excretion is influenced by multiple causes, among which we highlight:
1. The calcium reserve.
2. The acid-base balance.
3. Levels of magnesium and sodium.
4. The action of various hormones (eg thyroid and parathyroid).

Phosphorus works synergistically with calcium, and antagonistically with sodium and magnesium.
There are also external causes that alter one way or the other calcium assimilation. For example, the calcium content in vegetables in the form of oxalate is practically zero, and a diet rich in oat bran and reduces its level of calcemia and instead eating increases the value of cabbage.

Deficiency of calcium in the body
If the blood level of calcium is less than 90 mg / l. various conditions arise.

From the standpoint of Bone
It is a characteristic symptom in the states of rickets and osteomalacia, growth retardation, osteoporosis and all signs of decalcification.

From the standpoint of neuromuscular
- Tetany: anormles muscular sensations (tingling, itching, numbness). Disorders attributed to tetany are several.
- Nervous disorders: tendendia to anxiety, aggression, insomnia, headaches, disorders of the appendages (nails, hair).
- Contractions, sometimes convulsions, cramps, etc..
- The shortage of calcium in smooth muscle produces a tendency to slack (eg stomach or gallbladder).
- In muscle tissue calcium plays different roles: while the addition of voluntary muscle contractions decreases calcium in smooth muscle its presence increases the number of them.
- In the blood tissue, a low level of calcium results in poor blood clotting to prevent the passage of a thrombogenic tromboquinasa or passage of prothrombin to thrombin.

Symptoms of hypercalcemia (excess calcium)
If the blood calcium level exceeds 105 mg / l. can cause the following conditions:
* A level of the kidneys: polyuria (excessive urination), increases excretion of potassium.
* A level tract: loss of appetite, vomiting, constipation, pain in epigastrium
* A level Nervous mental and physical fatigue, muscle weakness, drowsiness.
* At Heart: palpitations (tachycardia)
* A general level: calcified tissues, especially arteries, cornea, conjunctiva, joints, etc..

Sources of calcium

Raw goat's milk and any fresh vegetable. All natural grains, not refined, are high in calcium. Raw cabbage contains plenty of calcium. All vegetable juices help to introduce this mineral in our body. One of the best things we know that seal the calcium in the body is to use vegetable broth in powder form: one tablespoon in a glass medium raw milk. And one of the best ways to regulate calcium in the body there is through the use of cod liver oil. Among the almond nut is another excellent source of calcium. The wheat and sesame are excellent sources of calcium. The cheeses are also a source of calcium.

Related topic: Osteoporosis and Menopause

Articles on minerals:

* Chlorine. Properties and Functions
* Iron: functions, deficiency symptoms and causes of
* Magnesium. Its properties and indications
* Potassium: properties and functions
* Sodium. Functions and properties
* Phosphorus: Properties and Functions
* The sulfur. Properties and Functions

*Automatic Translation