Carbohydrates: their metabolism

Metabolism of carbohydrates or carbohydrate
For an adult with an average weight of sixty pounds, the blood and extracellular free glucose is about half an ounce. If one adds the intracellular free glucose we will have a total of 31 grams. Liver glycogen (40 to 80 grams) is immediately transformed into glucose. The muscle (about 240 grams) is specifically reserved for muscle contraction. In total we have then that the sugar content of the body is approximately 300 grams, of which only 70 grams can be used to maintain blood sugar or glucose in the blood constant.

But during the eight hours that lasts about our sleep, the body's needs are of the order of 110 grams of carbohydrates, a figure which far exceeds the potential liver. It follows that we must find other reserves. The example below illustrates that we very well the importance of relations between the metabolism of carbohydrates, the lipids and the proteins. The metabolism of carbohydrates or carbohydrate appears to be the nexus of various metabolisms. Carbohydrate catabolism or disposal of carbohydrate origin is at the heart of the general metabolism, not only because sugar and carbohydrates are the energy food par excellence, but also what it is because the catabolism of other food uses of the catabolic pathways carbohydrates. This catabolism leads to the formation of carbon dioxide and water using the following formula C6 H12 O6 - <da 6C02 over 6H20. Between the two terms in this equation are interspersed many biochemical transformations.

The first stage is the entry of glucose into the intracellular environment typically made possible by a phosphorylation in the presence of exoquinasa agent of phosphorylation and insulin. Converted into glucose and fructose or phosphate can be catabolized or eliminated. Two routes are possible: an anaerobic (intramuscularly) and one aerobic (route used by the liver for at least half of their carbohydrate metabolism)

1 .- Vía Renten anaerobic or Meyerhoff
Phosphate glucose or fructose is converted first or phosphate, then fructose diphosphate is split into two molecules of glyceraldehyde monophosphate. The triose is converted to pyruvic acid and lactic acid after which it stops the reaction. In fact this term is mandatory if the muscular effort has been intense. The energy efficiency of this group of reactions is considerable.

2 .- Vía Barburg aerobic or Dickens Lippen

It is the latest discovery and appears to be essentially liver. Actually there are two ways which both the one and the other part of the glucose or phosphate. The first pass through the intermediary of two pentoses, ribose and ribulose. The second through the glucuronic acid and pentose, the Catfish.

Finally, the sugars are transformed into carbon dioxide C02 and H2O by the Krebs cycle, being the gateway to that course of coenzyme A (CoA) that captures the pyruvic acid. Not go into the field of chemical reactions and the multiple enzymes and cofactors involved enzymes. This cycle of reactions is particularly energetic for his performance is 70%.

*Automatic Translation