Chemical composition of fats or oils

Chemical composition of fats or oils. General

Are also called lipids, are essentially based organic compounds of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. They are the most concentrated source of energy and play carbohydrates as the role of combustible materials, as well when stored in the body as a layer of fat under the skin and around organs provide insulation and protection to body structures .

Regarding its chemical composition must be said that fats are complex substances composed primarily of fatty acids and glycerin. The glycerin from the chemical point of view is an alcohol. Acids entering the composition of fats do not resemble in any way generally known acids such as acetic acid or commonly known as vinegar.

The acids in the fat molecule are solids or oily and its molecule contains many atoms of carbon, 16 to 18. These acids are sour and are called fatty acids. Chemically they behave as if they were truly acids, since combining with the glycerin are fat. The most common fatty acids, which are in the majority of fats are: stearic, palmitic and oleic.

When a molecule of glycerol combines with three fatty acids, the result is a fat. Depending on the name of the acid that attaches to the OH group (oxygen, hydrogen) of glycerine, fat or Tripalmítica called Trioleica. In addition to these kinds of fat in which one molecule of glycerol linked to three molecules of fatty acids identical, there are fats that contain two or three different fatty acids. The human body fat are generally similar combinations.

You can appreciate the potential to perform multiple operations knowing that, for example, glycerin is able to bind to three identical acids. So fat, lipid or glyceride as well as they are called can be as simple or compound that glycerin is combined with three molecules of fatty molecules equal to three different acids. Among the former we can mention the tripalmitin and tristearin and triolein between the second to the OLEOPALMITOESTEARINA or DIPALMITOESTEARINA.

Fats are usually insoluble in water but by the action of certain enzymes called lipases Diastase emulsified, ie, they become very fine droplets that remain suspended in the water. The lipids are altered slowly on contact with air then acquired a particular taste stale. All fats are solid at a temperature low enough to become liquid if the temperature rises. Although lipids strongly heated in boiling not ever fall because they are volatile, they can not form steam, and a sufficiently high temperature decompose from 250 to 300 degrees to form acrolein.

Chemical reactions of fatty
Chemical reactions involving lipids are the hydrolysis and saponification. Hydrolysis is the process that leads to the division into glycerol and fatty acids and is made by heating the fat in the presence of dilute acids. Saponification is a hydrolysis is carried out in an alkaline medium leads to the division into glycerin and acid metal salt. The soap is also done through this process that occurs through organic digestion of fats. A mineral oils such as paraffin or petroleum jelly can not be saponified, so the human body assimilates and thus have no nutritional value as food. Liquid fats are often subjected to the process of hydrogenation, or hardening of the fat with which to industrial processes and purely commercial purposes is achieved chemically combine in the presence of catalysts such as nickel hydrogen atoms with carbon from fat.

Dietary Fats
Needless to say that when these procedures are used for obtaining or modifying them edible fats become highly detrimental for their difficult to digest organic matter. The fat diet is presented in several ways:

1 .- In the form of butter, lard, oil, etc.. can be used this way so measured.

2 .- Otherwise as the fat found in meat, fish, eggs, milk, which is not as easy to measure and it varies depending on product quality and the season in These are ingested.

*Automatic Translation