Nervous System: Functions

Nervous system function
The primary function of the nervous system is put into communication specialized cells in the uptake of stimuli (receivers) with particularly qualified to perform an act, either motor or secretory (effectors). Since there are very many receptors, the nervous system must integrate all the information we receive and coordinate for the benefit of the agency. It also has the property of retaining in part the information it receives and store past experience (memory), besides other functions named above.

The nervous system is made up of highly differentiated cells that have the ability to give rise to a type known activity of nerve impulse. The necessary connections of the central nervous system with receptors and effectors are set by nerves. Split brain 12 pairs of nerves (cranial) and the spinal cord, 31 pairs (spinal).

Neurons. Nerve fibers. Nerves. Synapses

Neurons are specialized cells of the nervous system. They consist of a ciliary body or soma and one or more extensions that may be of two types: dendrites and axis cylinder or axon.

The nerve fibers are the axis cylinder of a neuron. The nerve fibers can be of two types: myelinated and unmyelinated.

The nerves are associations of nerve fibers of different types and diameters, arranged in the same way and mixed with conjunctive elements, leaving the central nervous system.

Is called a synapse to the area of contact between two neurons. Synapses are established between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another, but never between dendrites or between axons.

Nerve impulse

It's a wave of negativity that runs through the fiber surface that arises as a result of passengers changes membrane permeability caused by the stimulus. Any effective stimulus affects the membrane permeability, which increases suddenly and allows ion entry NAT.

The stimulated area does drain thus new sodium ions displace the neighboring areas, thus spreading wave of excitation (nerve impulse) across the fiber. The speed of propagation of nerve impulses depends on the nature of the fiber and its diameter.

In all cases, the neuron that becomes active not download a single nerve impulse, but a series of them all equal, and their number depends on the intensity of the stimulus and functional status in which it has. The termination of a motor nerve fiber in a somatic muscles form a complex structure called the motor plate. In this case a single impulse is sufficient to cause contraction of the muscle fiber.

Neural circuits and reflex
All neurons of the nervous system are directly or indirectly interconnected. The various branches into which it divides the axon of a neuron can be in contact with others, so that according to how the circuits can be: convergent, divergent and parallel recurring.

*Automatic Translation