Proteins. Their origin and composition

Origin and composition of proteins
The name protein comes from the Proteus, a mythical Greek genius characterized by virtue of changing its shape. In Biochemistry, the protein is defined as a substance formed by the union of many amino acids (from 200 to 50,000), forming high molecular weight macromolecules and complex structure, essential in the composition and functioning of living beings.

The properties of proteins are diverse: some are soluble in water and insoluble in it, very reactive and also inert easily denatured by the heat and relatively resistant to it, and so on.
Unlike carbohydrates and fats, proteins have also always in nitrogen molecule, besides carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and, frequently, also sulfur and phosphorus.

The average number of different elements in the protein is as follows:

1 .- Carbon: 50 to 54 per 100
2 .- Hydrogen: 6 to 7 per 100
3 .- Oxygen: 21 to 23 per 100
4 .- Nitrogen: 15 to 17 per 100
5 .- Sulfur: 0.3 to 2.5 per 100

Some proteins in their molecules also contain metals such as iron, copper, magnesium, cobalt and molybdenum.

Proteins, also known as proteins, or proteins albuminoidal have a very complicated chemical architecture, to the point that it can be argued that they are much more complex than other nutrients essential for life.

Enters into their composition a large number of atoms, thus determining the protein molecule reach very large dimensions. This molecule may be dozens, hundreds of thousands and even millions of times heavier than hydrogen atoms. Proteins are fundamental components of all living cells, with which they form tissues, enzymes, hormones, enzymes, etc. the body of man and animals.

Each protein is formed by natural amino acids or amino acids clearly defined, which are represented in definite proportions: a prototype is, therefore, a variable mixture of amino acids either.

Twenty different amino acids are known, of which our body can manufacture, from various combinations of those, only twelve, while the eight remaining, ie non-synthesized, must necessarily be ingested in the diet if we preserve optimal condition our health.

To take an example to understand. We can compare the amino acids with the letters of the alphabet, which together in certain ways, construct different words. Similarly, the different amino acids joined to each other can write the different protein molecules.

Taking into account that any number of letters can be combined with each other in a very different way to write a word, but to achieve that we need to bind each other in a certain order, we can easily imagine such a number could arise as specific proteins as huge stocks after only twenty different amino acids.

*Automatic Translation